By John Norris, Mike Fuller
The German 88 mm was once by way of some distance the main recognized and flexible artillery weapon of worldwide warfare II. It used to be first used as an anti-aircraft weapon via the Condor Legion throughout the Spanish Civil struggle and observed extra carrier within the German invasions of Poland and France, the place it was once first utilized in its anti-tank function. This function was once really profitable and the 88 turned feared through tank crews from North Africa to Russia. except those major roles the 88 mm used to be used because the major weapon on late-war German tanks, as a self-propelled gun, or even as an aerial weapon. This publication covers a lot of these versions, explaining their layout, improvement and operational use.
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Extra resources for 88 mm FlaK 18/36/37/41 and PaK 43 1936-45
This clearing had to be ruthless: gunpowder might be employed to quickly blow ancient churches and monasteries sky high (compensation-seeking lawsuits could stretch on for generations). Next the existing defences had to be strengthened. Tall medieval gates and towers, their vertical defences now outmoded, had to be lowered to offer less of a target. Church towers inside the town would be spared. These were invaluable for observation, and also for mounting a few light pieces to snipe at the besiegers from a distance (during the siege of Florence in 1530 a defending gunner nicknamed 'the Wolf' pestered the Imperial Army from the heights of the St Miniato campanile, protected by 1,800 wool bales piled up or strapped to the tower).
Height was an advantage here: to THE NEW FURY overlook your target meant everything. The besiegers - or, more likely, the impressed peasantry of the surrounding country - might build great platforms, cavaliers, to raise up the attacking guns. At Haarlem in 1573 the Spanish besiegers erected musket-proof wooden cages on tall poles for snipers to fire into the defenders' works. Once the barrage began it had to be steady, ideally furious. Each type of gun had its role: the great cannons and culverins to blast away at rampart and tower; the lesser artillery and infantry fire to keep the defenders' heads down and harass the work of repair; the mortars to extend destruction into the town.
The wide platforms at the top of each bastion provide further artillery positions. In the end the angle bastion concept proved the most attractive to Renaissance engineers and military architects - but it took time for the angle bastion system to win out. THE NEW FURY have merged with other, similar tactics based on chains of rectangular fortlets and angled connecting trench lines, tactics which remained an important part of the siege and siege-like field warfare so typical of the period through to the seventeenth century.