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By P.G. LeFevre

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Adrenaline on inside, at about 1: 100,000 - -.. _ _ _ _ _ -----,--~~ Control. . . . . . \Vhale neurohypophysealextract, on inside . . . . (1 mg. -------~~-- 4,5 3,5 Under atmospheric air. 3 161 158 Figures in individual experiments are for successive one·hour runs. with Na 24 ) proved always to exceed slightly the total current, as shown by the examples in Table VII. The Na+ efflux concurrently determined with Na 22 just about accounted for the difference between the two figures, so that the entire short-circuit current was attributable to active Na+ transport.

K-level~ plotted are 30-minute levels, in experiments like those of graph above. (Courtesy of G. H. MUDGE and American Journal ot Physiology) 19 Phenolsulfonphthalein and p-aminohippurate, substances actively secreted by the kidney tubules and commonly used i~ kidney function tests. 33 VIII, 7, a: P. G. LEFEVRE, Active Transport through Animal Cell Membranes This same system has also been tackled by the Sheffield group; WHITTAM and DAVIES (1953 a, c) noted in these slices that the Na+ content rose rapidly, replacing the lost K +, if the metabolism was suppressed by cold or by lack of oxygen (Table VIII).

Temporaria. LINDERHOLM (1952) made excellent use of this frog skin Na+-transport system to elucidate the basic action of some of the chief clinical diuretic agents, and confirmed thereby many of USSING'S observations. He argues that CONWAY'S (1951) "redox pump," as the basis for this Na+ transport, provides the most complete interpretation of the experimental facts. LINDERHOLM also noted that, although perhaps only 5% of the energy of the skin's respiration is required for the Na+ pump, the Na+ marge transfer is 70--90% of the electron transfer involved on the basis of CONWAY'S hypothesis; thus the "coulomb efficiency" appears to be very high indeed.

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