By Peter W. Hawkes

Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics merges long-running serials-Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics and Advances in Optical and Electron Microscopy. The sequence positive factors prolonged articles at the physics of electron units (especially semiconductor devices), particle optics at low and high energies, microlithography, photo technology and electronic photo processing, electromagnetic wave propagation, electron microscopy, and the computing tools utilized in these kinds of domain names.

**Read Online or Download Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics, Vol. 145 PDF**

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**Extra resources for Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics, Vol. 145**

**Sample text**

In multimedia applications, a video compression/decompression system is referred to as a video codec, which is the focus of discussion in this section. To explain the application of GMRFs in video compression, we focus on the compression component of a multimedia communication system. , 1998) are not explicitly addressed in this section. Broadly speaking, video codecs can be classified in two categories: transform codecs and predictive codecs. The transform codecs use an algebraic transform such as the discrete cosine transform (DCT) or discrete wavelet transform (DWT) to represent the video stream in a transformed domain, where the energy is bundled into a fewer number of significant coefficients.

After subtracting the global mean, the horizontal (βh ) and vertical (βv ) field interactions are estimated. Based on the values of the interactions (βh , βv ), the steady-state values {Lii∞ , Lii−1∞ } of the regressors (Lii , Lii−1 ) are computed using Eq. (29). 2. Steady-State Error Covariance Approximation. Since the state and observation equations [Eqs. (52) and (53)] are shift-invariant, the predictor 18 ASIF covariance matrix Pi+1|i is approximated with its steady-state value (say P (p) ) computed using the Riccati equation in the KBF: Pi+1|i = Γ Pi|i Γ T + Π QΠ T , Pi+1|i+1 = [I − Ki+1 G]Pi+1|i , where Ki+1 = Pi+1|i GT GPi+1|i GT + R (54) (55) −1 .

40) and (41)]. Since the VQ step introduces controlled distortion, the reconstructed video is not a perfect match of the input video X. As in the standard codecs, SNP/VQR uses lossy compression to achieve low bit per pixel representations but, at low bit rates, the subjective quality of the reconstructed video is much superior to these standards. 263 exhibit several visual degradations such as blocking. SNP/VQR exhibits better visual quality with no blocking, and more details are retained in the compressed video.