By Wu F.
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Extra resources for Advances in visual data compression and communication
Third, different VLC tables can be selected where the codes are designed for more efficiently encoding at ranges of lower or higher rates. The selection is controlled by the encoder and depends on the target rate. Finally, the direct mode can determine the motion vectors within B pictures by inferencing from the co-located motion vectors in P picture without rate overhead. In addition to layered scalable video coding, MPEG-4 also specifies fine granularity scalable (FGS) coding. It enables the compressed stream to be truncated at any length, which better fits the bandwidth fluctuation in the Internet.
2 2 4 4 8 8 The most straightforward way to conduct source coding is to assign 2 different bits to every symbol. It is so-called fixed length coding (FLC). The expected length L(S) is 2 bits too. 25 bits and thus FLC is not optimal. This simple example shows the importance of source coding in the information theory. According to the theory, shorter codewords should be assigned to symbols with larger probabilities, while longer codewords to symbols with smaller probabilities. This is the basis of variable length coding (VLC).
Note that it is not essential that the probabilities used in the encoding be equal to the true distribution of the source. In some cases, such as in image and video compression, it is difficult to describe a true distribution for the source. Even then, it is possible to apply the above arithmetic coding procedure. The procedure will be efficient only if the model distribution is close to the empirical distribution of the source. A more sophisticated use of arithmetic coding is to change the model dynamically to adapt to the source, which has been adopted in the recent video coding standards.