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By Leo A Goldblatt

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Sample text

Pod openings caused by pathogenic fungi such as Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii also provide entrance for A. flavus (Ashworth and Langley, 1964; Schroeder and Ashworth, 1965) and subsequent aflatoxin formation. It has also been widely accepted that most A. flavus invasion and aflatoxin development occur after digging and during the curing (drying) period (Austwick and Ayerst, 1963; Spensley, 1963). Bampton (1963) concluded that damage to the shell is a major factor in A. flavus invasion and aflatoxin development in the kernel during drying.

Basappa et al. (1967) reported aflatoxin B2 and B2 production by a strain of A. oryzae. Walbeek et al. (1968) cultured 128 fungi isolated from 74 food samples from households, retail stores, and processing plants on shredded wheat and artificial media. Aflatoxins were produced by a Rhizopus sp. and A. ochraceus was well as by isolates of A. flavus. A summary of several fungi reported to produce aflatoxin is given in Table I. Other investigators have failed to corroborate findings that fungi other than A.

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X (1967) were unable to duplicate the work of Hodges et al (1964) with several isolates of P. puberulum, including a subculture obtained from Hodges. Parrish et al. (1966) evaluated several species of Aspergillus and Penicillium, but only isolates of A. flavus and A. parasiticus produced aflatoxin; isolates of P. puberulum were not among those tested. Similar results were obtained by Mislivec et al. (1968) in screening 260 isolates including 43 species of Penicillium and seven species of Aspergillus.

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