By Navnit Shah, Harpreet Sandhu, Duk Soon Choi, Hitesh Chokshi, A. Waseem Malick
This quantity bargains a finished advisor at the concept and perform of amorphous strong dispersions (ASD) for dealing with demanding situations linked to poorly soluble medicinal drugs. In twenty-three inclusive chapters, the ebook examines thermodynamics and kinetics of the amorphous kingdom and amorphous strong dispersions, ASD applied sciences, excipients for stabilizing amorphous sturdy dispersions equivalent to polymers, and ASD production applied sciences, together with spray drying, sizzling soften extrusion, fluid mattress layering and solvent-controlled micro-precipitation know-how (MBP). every one expertise is illustrated by way of particular case stories. additionally, devoted sections disguise analytical instruments and applied sciences for characterization of amorphous strong dispersions, the prediction of long term balance, and the advance of compatible dissolution tools and regulatory elements. The publication additionally highlights destiny applied sciences at the horizon, similar to supercritical fluid processing, mesoporous silica, KinetiSol®, and using non-salt-forming natural acids and amino acids for the stabilization of amorphous systems.
Amorphous stable Dispersions: conception and perform is a useful connection with pharmaceutical scientists attracted to constructing bioavailable and therapeutically potent formulations of poorly soluble molecules that allows you to develop those applied sciences and strengthen greater medicinal drugs for the future.
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Extra resources for Amorphous Solid Dispersions: Theory and Practice
Experimentally, there is an abrupt change in the slope of such properties as molar volume or heat content at the glass transition temperature, while the properties themselves are continuous. Examples of the changes in volume and heat are shown in Fig. 11. In the top half, the solid line represents a melting phase transition for a crystalline solid, which shows an abrupt change in the volume at the melting temperature TM . The dashed plot above it represents the behavior of a melt that forms a supercooled liquid when the temperature is cooled below TM .
The energy difference between levels B and A represents the heat added to melt the material Several comments are warranted. First, the heat of melting in this example was taken relative to a reference state of absolute zero. The heat of melting for samples at higher temperatures with energy levels higher than A is represented by the difference between level B and the new starting level. Second, although the example shown here assigned the melting energy at the level for which the length of a–d equals the average separation c, this is a crude approximation for illustration only.
If supercooled without crystallization, there is no abrupt decrease in the volume or the heat, which are thus higher than the crystalline solid. The significance of this observation is that the average distance between molecules is larger in a glassy state than in a crystalline state at the same temperature and pressure. A similar analysis can be made for the heat content. Since the supercooled liquid and glassy state do not experience abrupt decreases in the heat content on freezing, the heat content is higher in supercooled form than in the crystalline form at the same (T, P).