Analog Electronics: Circuits, Systems and Signal Processing - download pdf or read online

By David Crecraft, Stephen Gergely

The content material has been conscientiously designed to satisfy the necessities of first and moment 12 months scholars of digital engineering, communications engineering and telecommunications, following complete honours measure courses or two-year classes together with HNC/HND.

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3. The phase angle, relative to a chosen and defined reference of the same frequency. Note that it is not possible to specify the phase difference between two sine waves of different frequencies. An analogy may be drawn with two cars moving along a road. If they travel at exactly the same speed (frequency) then the distance between them (phase) is constant and can be given as a single number. If their speeds are different the distance between them changes with time and can not be described by a single number.

The three fundamental electrical components are distinguished by the relationship of the voltage across them and the resulting current. 2 summarizes these relationships. The ratio of the voltage, v and the current / is called the resistance 7? of a component which dissipates but does not store energy. It is measured in ohms (f]). 2, it is generally treated as a constant. 2 A summary of the relationships between voltage and current in ideal components iR L- yidt R Uvdt ^-^ C— dt In some cases, such as the transmission of power, resistance is an undesirable property of the components because it causes losses and heating.

3). These components can also be found by measurement using an intrument called a Spectrum Analyser. The analog version of this is basically a variable frequency band pass filter which is 'swept' over the frequency band of interest to find the frequency components present in the input waveform. There are also digital procedures, algorithms, for finding these frequency components called the Discrete Fourier Transform or DFT. Its more computationally efficient implementation is the Fast Fourier Transform or FFT; see Sander (1992) for a brief description of these.

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